1. Majeed, M. Prakash, L, Badmaev, V., Nujoma, Y., Natarajan, S., Norton, T., Sysler, M., Gopinathan, S., and Alegesan, K (1999) Redefining Our Standards, Boswellin® The Only Natural Leukotriene and HLE Inhibitor® . Sabinsa Corporation.

  2. Majeed, M., Badmaev, V., Gopinathan, S., Rajendran, R., Norton, T., and Braly, J. (1996) Boswellin® The Anti-inflammatory Phytonutrient. Nutriscience Publishers Inc., Piscataway, NJ.

  3. Henderson, W.R. (1994) The role of leukotrienes in inflammation. Ann. Intern. Med. 121, 684-697.

  4. Ford Hutchinson, A.W. Gresser, M., and Young, R.N. (1993) 5-Lipoxygenase. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 63, 383-417.

  5. Safayhi, H., Mack, T., Sabieraj, J., Anazodo, M.I., Subramanian, L.R., and Ammon, H.P.T. (1992) Boswellic acids: Novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 261(3), 1143-1146.

  6. Sailer, E-R., Subramanian, L.R., Rall, B., Hoernlein, R.F., Ammon, H.P.T., and Safayhi, H. (1996) Acetyl-11-keto-b-boswellic acid (AKBA): structure requirements for binding and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Br. J. Pharmacol. 117, 615-618.

  7. Sailer, E-R.; Schweizer, S., Boden, S.E., Ammon, H.P.T., and Safayhi, H. (1998) Characterization of acetyl-11-keto-b-boswellic acid and arachidonate-binding regulatory site of 5-lipoxygenase using photoaffinity labeling. Eur. J. Biochem. 256, 364-368.

  8. Aharony, D. and Stein, R.L. (1986) Kinetic mechanism of guinea pig neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 11512-11519.

  9. Werz, O., Szellas, D., Henseler, M., and Steinhilber, D. (1998) Nonredox 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitors require glutathione peroxidase for efficient inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase activity. Molecular Pharmacology 54, 445-451.

  10. Lau, C.K., Belanger, P.C., Dufresne C., Scheigetz, J., Therien, M., Fitzsimmons, B., Young, R.N., Ford-Hutchinson, A.W., Riendeau, D., Denis, D., Guay, J., Charleson, S., Piechuta, H., McFarlane, C.S., Chiu, S.H.L., Eline, D., Alvaro, R.F., Miwa, G., and Walsh, J.L. (1992) Development of 2,3-dihydro-6-(3-phenoxypropyl)-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5-benzofuranol (L-670,630) as a potent and orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase. J. Med. Chem. 35, 1299-1318.

  11. Safayhi, H., Rall, B., Salier, E-R., and Ammon, H.P.T. (1997) Inhibition by boswellic acids of human leukocyte elastase. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 281, 460-463.

  12. Ellis, R.E., Yuan, J.Y., and Horvitz, H.R. (1991) Mechanisms and functions of cell death . Ann. Rev. Cell. Biol. 7, 663-698.

  13. Raff, M.C., Barres, B.A., Burne, J.F., Coles, H.S., Ishizaki, Y., and Jacobson, M.D. (1993) Programmed cell death and the control of cell survival: Lessons from the nervous system. Science (Washington DC) 262, 695-700.

  14. Rougier, P. and Bugat, R. (1996) CPT-11 in the treatment of colorectal cancer: Clinical efficacy and safety profile. Semin. Oncol. 23, 34-41.

  15. Anderson, K.M., Seed, T., Plate, J.M., Jajeh, A., Meng, J., and Harris, J.E. (1995) Selective inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase reduce CML blast cell proliferation and induce limited differentiation and apoptosis. Leukotr. Res. 19, 789-801.

  16. Hoernlein, R.F., Orlikowsky, TH., Zehrer, C., Niethammer, D., Sailer, E.R., Simmet, TH., Dannecker, G.E., and Ammon, H.P.T. (1999) Acetyl-11-keto-b-Boswellic acid induces apoptosis in HL-60 and CCRF-CEM cells and inhibits topoisomerase I. J. Pharm. Exp. Therap. 288(2), 613-619.

  17. Lee, Y-W., Fang, Q-C., Wang, Z-G., Li, D-H., and Cook, C.E. (1991) Pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds as topoisomerase inhibitors or cell differentiation inducers US Patent 5,064,823.

  18. Wildfeuer, A., Neu, I.S., Safayhi, H., Metzger, G., Wehrmann, M., Vogel, U., and Ammon, H.P.T. (1998) Effects of boswellic acids extracted from a herbal medicine on the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and the course of experimental autoimmune encepha-lomyelitis. Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug Res. 48(I), Nr 6, 668-674.

  19. Shao, Y., Ho, C-T., Chin, C-K., Badmaev, V., Ma, W., and Huang, M-T. (1998) Inhibitory activity of boswellic acids from Boswellia serrata against human leukemia HL-60 cells in culture. Planta Medica 64, 328-331.

  20. Jing, Y., Nakajo, S., Xia, L., Nakaya, K., Fang, Q., Waxman, S., and Han, R. (1999) Boswellic acid acetate induces differentiation and apoptosis in leukemia cell lines. Leukemia Research 23, 43-50.

  21. Gupta, V.N., Yadav, D.S., Jain, M.P., and Atal, C.K. (1987) Chemistry and Pharmacology of the gum resin of B. serrata. Indian Drugs 24(5), 221-231.

  22. Annual Report, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jammu, India (1987-88), pp 1-2.

  23. Singh, G.B. et al. (1992) New phytotherapeutic agent for treatment of arthritis and allied disorders with novel mode of action. IV and Int. Congress on Phytotherapy, Munich, Germany, Abstract SL 74.

  24. Booker, D-K. and Winking, M. (1997) Dtsch. Ärzteblatt 94, 1197 (cited in reference 18).

  25. Gupta, I., Parihar, A., Malhotra, P., Singh, G.B., L..udtke, R., Safayhi, H., and Ammon, H.P. (1997) Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Eur. J. Med. Res. 2(1), 37-43.

  26. Gupta, I., Gupta, V., Parihar, A., Gupta, S., L..udtke, R., Safayhi, H., and Ammon, H.P. (1998) Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study. Eur. J. Med. Res. 3(11), 511-514.

  27. Simmet, T. and Ammon, H.P.T. (1998) Use of boswellic acid for treating brain tumours. Patent WO 96/19212.

  28. Ammon, H.P.T. and Safayhi, H. (1997) Use of Boswellic acid and its derivatives for inhibiting normal and increased leucocytic elastase or plasmin activity. Patent WO 97/07796.

  29. Ammon, H.P.T., Safayhi, H.; and Singh, G.B. (1993) Use of pure boswellic acid. Patent EP 0552657.

  30. Weisman, B. (1999) Natural composition for treating bone or joint inflammation. US Patent 5,888,514.

  31. Taneja, S.C,; Sethi, V.K.; Dhar, K.L.; and Kapil, R.S. (1997) Boswellic acid compositions and preparation thereof. US Patent 5,629,351.

  32. Patwardhan, B. (1996) Method of treating musculoskeletal disease and a novel composition therefor. US Patent 5,494,668.
Copyright © Sabinsa Corporation. All Rights Reserved.